若名词/代词与非谓语构成主动关系，用doing或having done;若名词/代词与非谓语构成被动关系，用done或having been done。having done与having been done 强调非谓语发生在主句谓语之前。
The boy ran quickly, his father following. (表示伴随情况)
He lay on his back, his hands crossed under his head. (表示伴随情况)
They started home, their minds full of plans for increasing production. (表示伴随情况)
He was silent for a moment, his lips tight. (表示伴随情况)
He put on his socks, wrong side out. (表示补充说明)
The war over, all the Chinese people’s volunteers came back to China. (表示补充说明)
She came in, a baby in her arms. (表示伴随情况)
He went off, gun in hand. (表示伴随情况)
His homework done, Jim decided to go and see the play.
=After his homework was done, he decided to go and see the play.
The last bus having gone, we had to walk home.
=Because the last bus having gone, we had to walk home.
Weather permitting, we’ll go for an outing tomorrow.
=If weather permitting, we’ll go for an outing tomorrow.
They walked through the forest, an old hunter leading the way.
He lived in a wooden house with two rooms, one being a bedroom and the other being an office.
=He lived in a wooden house with two rooms, one was a bedroom, the other was an office.